Realism (see: Wikipedia) was created in France in the 1830s and 1840s. In many other countries it played an important role until the 1880s.
In order to understand its emergence, it is necessary to consider the social problems of this epoch. The existence of many people was endangered, they founded associations to defend themselves and were still captured and punished. Against this background, realism wanted to show reality in its rough and clear form and as objective truth. The main theme was the struggle for survival of mainly the working class.
The most famous representative was the French painter Gustave Courbet (1819-1877).